# NAME

Interpolation - Arbitrary string interpolation semantics

Alpha version of additions by Jenda@Krynicky.cz

# SYNOPSIS

```  use Interpolation name => \&function, ...;
print "la la la la \$name{blah blah blah}";
```

```  # This is like doing:
\$VAR = &function(blah blah blah);
print "la la la la \$VAR";
```

# DESCRIPTION

Beginners always want to write this:

```  print "The sum of three and four is: 3+4";
```

And they want the `3+4` part to be evaluated, so that it prints this:

```  The sum of three and four is: 7
```

Of course, it's a double-quoted string, so it's not evaluated. The only things that are evaluated in double-quoted strings are variable references.

There are solutions to this, but most of them are ugly. This module is less ugly. It lets you define arbitrary interpolation semantics.

For example, you can say

```   use Interpolation money => \&commify_with_dollar_sign,
E     => 'eval',
placename => 'ucwords',
;
```

And then you can write these:

```   print "3 + 4 = \$E{3+4}";
# Prints  ``3 + 4 = 7''
```

```   \$SALARY = 57500;
print "The salary is \$money{\$SALARY}";
# Prints  ``The salary is \$57,500.00''
```

```   \$PLACE1 = 'SAN BERNADINO HIGH SCHOOL';
\$PLACE2 = 'n.y. state';
print "\$placename{\$PLACE1} is not near \$placename{\$PLACE2}";
# Prints  ``San Bernadino High School is not near N.Y. State";
```

# DETAILS

The arguments to the `use` call should be name-function pairs. If the pair is `(\$n, \$f)`, then `\$n` will be the name for the semantics provided by `\$f`. `\$f` must either be a reference to a function that you supply, or it can be the name of one of the built-in formatting functions provided by this package. `Interpolation` will take over the `%n` hash in your package, and tie it so that acessing `\$n{X}` calls `f(X)` and yields its return value.

If for some reason you want to, you can add new semantics at run time by using

```  import Interpolation name => function, ...
```

You can remove them again with

```  unimport Interpolation 'name', ...
```

## Built-ins

`Interpolation` provides a few useful built-in formatting functions; you can refer to these by name in the `use` or `import` line. They are:

```      eval     Evaluate argument
null     Same as eval
identity Also the same as eval
ucwords  Capitalize Input String Like This
commify  1428571 => 1,428,571.00
reverse  reverse string
sprintf  makes "\$S{'%.2f %03d'}{37.5,42}" turn into "37.50 042".
sprintf1 makes "\$S{'%.2f %03d', 37.5,42}" turn into "37.50 042".
```

It is posible to pass multiple arguments to your function. There are two alternate syntaxes:

```    \$interpolator{param1,param2}
\$interpolator{param1}{param2}
```

The first syntax will pass both arguments in \$_ joined by \$;, so you have to split them:

```    use Interpolation add => sub{@_ = split /\$;/o, \$_; \$_ + \$_};
print "3 + 4 = \$add{3,4}\n";
```

The other syntax (used for example by builtin 'sprintf') requires quite some magic, so you probably wouldn't want to be forced to write it yourself. (See the source of this module if you want to know how strange is the code. )

The other problem is, that your interpolator might want to return an array. In that case you would anticipate to get all the items joined by \$``, but instead you would get only the last item. You have to join the list yourself:

```    use Interpolation foo => sub {join \$", &bar(\$_)};
```

To make your life easier this module provides a way to specify the ``type'' of the interpolator and then does the necessary splits, joins or magic itself.

The syntax is:

```    use Interpolation 'name:input->output' => sub { ...
```

where the input is a list of '\$' and '@' and '\@' and the output is either '\$' or '@'. The '\$' means that the parameter/output should be left intact, while '@' forces a split/join on the parameter/output. Each character in the input list specifies the type of one brace in the call.

In addition you may add an asterisk to the end of the input type specification. This will allow for an arbitrary long list of parameters. Their type will be the last specified. In case you use this feature you HAVE to ``close'' the interpolator call by \$;. That is you will write something like \$foo{par1}{par2}...{parn}{\$;}. If you do not close the statement, you will get something like `HASH(0x452362)` instead of the result!

The default type is \$->\$.

``` Ex.:
'foo:\$->\$' - pass the argument to function directly and evaluate it in scalar context
\$foo{param}
'foo:\$->@' - pass the argument to function directly, evaluate it in list context and join
the result by \$"
\$foo{param}
'foo:@->\$' - split the first parameter by \$; and pass the resulting list to the function,
evaluate in scalar context
\$foo{param1,param2,...}
'foo:@->@' - split the first parameter by \$; and pass the resulting list to the function,
evaluate in list context and join
\$foo{param1,param2,...}
'foo:\$\$->\$' - ask for two parameters enclosed in braces
\$foo{param1}{param2}
'foo:\$@->\$' - ask for two parameters enclosed in braces and split the second one
the list you get from the split will be added to @_ flatlist
\$foo{paramA}{paramB1,paramB2,...}
'foo:\$\@->\$' - ask for two parameters enclosed in braces and split the second one
the list you get from the split will be passed as a reference to an array
\$foo{paramA}{paramB1,paramB2,...}
'foo:\$*->\$   - ask for arbitrary number of scalar parameters
\$foo{par1}{par2}{par3}{\$;}
```

``` 'foo:@->\$' => &bar   IS EQUAL TO   'foo' => sub {&bar(split /\$;/o, \$_)}
'foo:\$->@' => &bar   IS EQUAL TO   'foo' => sub {join \$", &bar(\$_)}
'foo:@->@' => &bar   IS EQUAL TO   'foo' => sub {join \$", &bar(split /\$;/o, \$_)}
'foo:\@->\$' => &bar  IS EQUAL TO   'foo' => sub {&bar([split /\$;/o, \$_ ])}
```

The builtin function sprintf could be implemented as: 'sprintf:\$@->\$' => sub {sprintf shift,@_}

# Cool examples

SQL

```    use Interpolation "'" => sub {\$_ = \$_; s/'/''/g; "'".\$_};
...
\$db->Sql("SELECT * FROM People WHERE LastName = \$'{\$lastname}'");
```

When passing strings to SQL you have to escape the apostrophes (and maybe some other characters) this crazy hack allows you do it quite easily.

Instead of ``... = '\$variable''' you write ``... = \$'{\$variable}''' et voila ;-) You may of course use this syntax for whatever string escaping you like.

# Warnings

It's easy to forget that the index to a `\$hash{...}` is an arbitrary expression, unless it looks like an identifier. There are two gotchas here.

Trap 1.

```  print "\$X{localtime}";
```

Here the `X` formatter is used to format the literal string `localtime`; the `localtime` built-in function is not invoked. If you really want the current time, use one of these:

```  print "\$X{+localtime}";
print "\$X{localtime()}";
```
Trap 2.

```  print "\$X{What ho?}";
```

This won't compile---you get `search pattern not terminated'. Why? Because Perl sees the `?` and interprets it as the beginning of a pattern match operator, similar to `/`. (Ah, you forgot that `?` could be a pattern match delimiter even without a leading `m`, didn't you?) You really need

```  print "\$X{'What ho?'}";
```

The rule is simple: That thing in the braces that looks like a hash key really is a hash key, and so you need to put it in quotes under the same circumstances that you need to put any other hash key in quotes. You probably wouldn't expect this to work either:

```  \$V = \$X{What ho?};
```

# Author

Mark-Jason Dominus (mjd-perl-interpolation@plover.com), Plover Systems co.

<p>Interpolator types addition by <a href=``mailto:Jenda@Krynicky.cz''>Jenda Krynicky</a>.<P>

<p>See <a href=``http://www.plover.com/~mjd/perl/Interpolation/''>The <tt>Interpolation.pm</tt> Page</a> for news and upgrades.</p>